Gain more readers for your article with a concise but comprehensive abstract that communicates the content of the full article.
Your abstract should provide a concise summary of the research conducted, the conclusions reached, and the potential implications of those conclusions, as well as:
- Consist of a single paragraph up to 250 words that communicate clearly, with correct grammar and unambiguous terminology
- Be self-contained, without abbreviations, footnotes, references, or mathematical equations
- Highlight what is novel in your work
- Include 3-5 keywords or phrases that describe the research to help readers find your article
Although the abstract is at the beginning of a published article, most authors write the abstract last and edit it multiple times before article publication to ensure it accurately captures the entire article.
IEEE recommends that you do not include mathematical symbols in your article title or abstract because they may not display properly.