Writing Your Abstract

A strong abstract can attract new readers.

Gain more readers for your article with a concise but comprehensive abstract that communicates the content of the full article.

Your abstract should provide a concise summary of the research conducted, the conclusions reached, and the potential implications of those conclusions, as well as:

  • Consist of a single paragraph up to 250 words that communicate clearly, with correct grammar and unambiguous terminology
  • Be self-contained, without abbreviations, footnotes, references, or mathematical equations
  • Highlight what is novel in your work
  • Include 3-5 keywords or phrases that describe the research to help readers find your article

Although the abstract is at the beginning of a published article, most authors write the abstract last and edit it multiple times before article publication to ensure it accurately captures the entire article.