Report Your Data Accurately

Give readers the full story.


As an author, keep in mind that readers of your article rely on you to communicate your research findings fully and accurately. Ensure they see the full picture by avoiding fabrication, falsification, and image manipulation during your research and when you are writing or revising your article.


  • Fabrication: inventing data or results
  • Falsification: manipulating research materials, equipment, or processes, or changing or omitting data or results┬╣
  • Image manipulation: excessive or inappropriate adjustment of an image that alters the scientific meaning of the image

┬╣The Office of Research Integrity, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services